AGROECOLOGÍA HISTÓRICA MAYA EN LAS TIERRAS BAJAS DE MÉXICO

Tlacaelel Rivera-Núñez

Resumo


Que la Agroecología sea la alternativa agrícola del presente y del futuro mucho tiene que ver con el hecho de que ha sido una realidad histórica para un gran número de pueblos indígenas y campesinos alrededor del mundo. Propongo que dentro del creciente proceso de hibridación académica o recombinación interdisciplinaria que está experimentando la Agroecología resulta pertinente hablar de una “Agroecología Histórica”. Dilucidar Agroecologías en clave diacrónica implica ampliar la escala geográfica de análisis hacia paisajes agrícolas históricos o palimpsestos, adentrarse a sus historias regionales, indagar la ingeniería ecológica de dichos paisajes, los procesos de imaginería social y simbolismo que han conducido a ellos, así como las estrategias de resistencia que han permitido a los grupos indígenas y campesinos mantener vigentes sus agri-culturas en medio de una modernidad hostil pero envolvente. Los mayas de las Tierras Bajas en México representan una matriz cultural con una historia agrícola ininterrumpida –llena de discontinuidades más no colapsos– de cohabitar un mismo espacio geográfico a lo largo de cinco mil años. En este trabajo presento la Agroecología de la mente “Kanan K’aax” (cuidar el monte), el esquema de manejo agrosilvícola “jardín forestal-milpero”, y la “terca y callada persistencia cultural” como ejes de la Agroecología Histórica entre los mayas yucatecos y lacandones de las Tierras Bajas. Concluyo reflexionando sobre el papel central que pueden tener las Etnociencias en un entendimiento de la Agroecología como conocimiento, práctica y movimiento orientados a redescubrir agriculturas históricas y traerlas a cuentas ante los retos y posibilidades de los horizontes políticos, sociales y ecológicos actuales y por venir.


Palavras-chave


Agroecología de la mente; hibridación interdisciplinaria; manejo agrosilvícola; palimpsestos; presentes-pasados-futuros

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Referências


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22276/ethnoscientia.v5i1.299

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