A MULHER E A PESCA: UM OLHAR SOBRE A PESQUISA E A ATUAÇÃO FEMININA PESQUEIRA NO BRASIL

Priscila F M Lopes, Carolina Tavares Freitas, Alpina Begossi

Resumo


As mulheres pescadoras lidam historicamente com a falta de reconhecimento de suas atividades, o que tem implicações socioeconômicas (e.g., falta de remuneração por seu trabalho) e de saúde (e.g.: falta de reconhecimento de suas doenças trabalhistas). Através de uma revisão da literatura, aqui avaliamos eventuais mudanças neste cenário para as pescadoras brasileiras, incluindo o seu reconhecimento na literatura científica. Encontramos que, nas últimas décadas, as pescadoras brasileiras conseguiram melhorias: muitas, por exemplo, gerenciam diferentes associações de pescadores em todo o país, incluindo algumas historicamente dominadas por homens, como as colônias de pesca. A academia também reflete esta tendência ao mostrar crescente interesse no entendimento do papel das mulheres na pesca brasileira. No entanto, as capturas femininas ainda tendem a não ser registradas, embora os peixes e mariscos que coletam tenham um papel central na subsistência, segurança e soberania alimentar de suas famílias e comunidades. Por outro lado, à medida que o reconhecimento feminino progride lentamente, em alguns casos as mulheres começam a ter seu trabalho valorizado economicamente para além das esferas de processamento e venda de peixes. Alguns exemplos mostram que trabalhos de pesca tradicionalmente vistos como uma simples "ajuda ao parceiro" começam a ser economicamente remunerados, o que tende a se traduzir em melhor uso desta renda no bem-estar familiar. Estas conquistas positivas ajudam a revelar barreiras mais sutis, como a constante luta das mulheres para serem reconhecidas como trabalhadoras da pesca quando seu trabalho não está diretamente no setor extrativo (mas voltado, por exemplo, à fabricação de equipamentos ou ao processamento e comércio de peixes). Mesmo quando diretamente envolvidas no setor extrativo, as pescadoras ainda lutam para ter o reconhecimento de suas doenças ocupacionais, sem o qual seu acesso aos direitos trabalhistas é limitado. Assim, há muito a ser feito para que o trabalho da pesca feminina saia da invisibilidade, mas os primeiros passos já foram dados, cabendo à sociedade como um todo propulsionar esse processo.


Palavras-chave


Invisibilidade pesqueira; Gestão pesqueira feminina; Comanejo pesqueiro; Pescadora artesanal

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Referências


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22276/ethnoscientia.v5i1.304

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