Heitor Oliveira Braga, Miguel Ângelo Pardal, Joelson Musiello Fernandes, Ulisses Miranda Azeiteiro


This study shared the fishers’ local ecological knowledge (LEK) from the two fishing villages (Peniche, Portugal, and Arraial do Cabo, Brazil), based on answers to the following key question: What are the main target species for fishing in Peniche/Arraial do Cabo? A total of 221 semi-structured interviews were conducted in the Atlantic fishing villages during 2016. Fisher´s interviews reported 42 species of marine animals from Peniche fishing community, and 40 species in Arraial do Cabo. The fisheries resources cited by fishers were assessed for vulnerability, according to the issue’s conservation based in IUCN and Brazilian Red List. We have identified the main target species for artisanal fishing in both fishing villages. The species with some degree of vulnerability included in the list of fishers in Peniche were: T. trachurus and P. glauca. In Arraial do Cabo fishing village this list is formed by nine species: P. saltatrix, E. marginatus, M. bonaci, P. glauca, M. canis, H. flavolimbatus, H. niveatus, G. galeus and P. americanus - Brazilian Subpopulation. These data acquired through the artisanal fishers of these communities can be an essential starting point for the design of future additional research on the conservation of local biological resources. Monitoring the artisanal fisheries through the informal data shared in this study can contribute to more appropriate and integrated management of the marine resources. 


Issues conservation, Sea social-ecological system, Artisanal fishers, Ethnobiology.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


ABAUNZA, P.; MURTA, A. G.; CAMPBELL, N.; CIMMARUTA, R.; COMESAÑA, A. S.; DAHLE, G.; SANTAMARÍA, M. G.; GORDO, L. S.; IVERSEN, S. A.; MACKENZIE, K.; OTHERS. Stock identity of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea: Integrating the results from different stock identification approaches. Fisheries Research, [s. l.], v. 89, n. 2, p. 196–209, 2008.

ABREU, J. S.; DOMIT, C.; ZAPPES, C. A. Is there dialogue between researchers and traditional community members? The importance of integration between traditional knowledge and scientific knowledge to coastal management. Ocean & Coastal Management, [s. l.], v. 141, p. 10–19, 2017.

ALBUQUERQUE, U. P.; LUCENA, R. F.; CUNHA, L. V.; ALVES, R. R. N. Methods and techniques in ethnobiology and ethnoecology. New York: Springer, 2014. Disponível em:

ALLISON, E. H.; ELLIS, F. The livelihoods approach and management of small-scale fisheries. Marine Policy, [s. l.], v. 25, n. 5, p. 377–388, 2001.

ALVES, L. M. F.; NUNES, M.; MARCHAND, P.; LE BIZEC, B.; MENDES, S.; CORREIA, J. P. S.; LEMOS, M. F. L.; NOVAIS, S. C. Blue sharks (Prionace glauca) as bioindicators of pollution and health in the Atlantic Ocean: Contamination levels and biochemical stress responses. Science of The Total Environment, [s. l.], v. 563–564, p. 282–292, 2016.

ALVES, R.; SOUTO, W. Ethnozoology: A Brief Introduction. Ethnobiology and Conservation, [s. l.], 2015. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 25 jun. 2019.

AWABDI, D. R.; TAVARES, D. C.; BONDIOLI, A. C. V.; ZAPPES, C. A.; DI BENEDITTO, A. P. M. Influences of conservation action on attitudes and knowledge of fishermen towards sea turtles along the southeastern Brazil. Marine Policy, [s. l.], v. 95, p. 57–68, 2018.

BÉNÉ, C. Small-scale fisheries: assessing their contribution to rural livelihoods in developing countries. FAO fisheries circular, [s. l.], v. 1008, p. 46, 2006.

BERKES, F.; COLDING, J.; FOLKE, C. Navigating social-ecological systems: building resilience for complexity and change. [s.l.] : Cambridge University Press UK, 2008.

BEVILACQUA, A. H. V.; CARVALHO, A. R.; ANGELINI, R.; CHRISTENSEN, V. More than Anecdotes: Fishers’ Ecological Knowledge Can Fill Gaps for Ecosystem Modeling. PLOS ONE, [s. l.], v. 11, n. 5, p. e0155655, 2016.

BIRÓ, É.; BABAI, D.; BÓDIS, J.; MOLNÁR, Z. Lack of knowledge or loss of knowledge? Traditional ecological knowledge of population dynamics of threatened plant species in East-Central Europe. Journal for Nature Conservation, [s. l.], v. 22, n. 4, p. 318–325, 2014.

BITALO, D. N.; MADUNA, S. N.; DA SILVA, C.; ROODT-WILDING, R.; BESTER-VAN DER MERWE, A. E. Differential gene flow patterns for two commercially exploited shark species, tope (Galeorhinus galeus) and common smoothhound (Mustelus mustelus) along the south–west coast of South Africa. Fisheries Research, [s. l.], v. 172, p. 190–196, 2015.

BRAGA, H. O.; AZEITEIRO, U. M.; OLIVEIRA, H. M. F.; PARDAL, M. A. Evaluating fishermen’s conservation attitudes and local ecological knowledge of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus), Peniche, Portugal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, [s. l.], v. 13, n. 1, p. 25, 2017.

BRAGA, H. O.; PARDAL, M. Â.; AZEITEIRO, U. M. Incorporation of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) into Biodiversity Management and Climate Change Variability Scenarios for Threatened Fish Species and Fishing Communities—Communication Patterns Among BioResources Users as a Prerequisite for Co-management: A Case Study of Berlenga MNR, Portugal and Resex-Mar of Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brazil. In: LEAL FILHO, W.; MANOLAS, E.; AZUL, A. M.; AZEITEIRO, U. M.; MCGHIE, H. (Eds.). Handbook of Climate Change Communication: Vol. 2. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018b. p. 237–262.

BRAGA, H. O.; PARDAL, M. Â.; CRUZ, R. C. M. Da; ALVARENGA, T. C.; AZEITEIRO, U. M. Fishers’ knowledge in Southeast Brazil: The case study of the Brazilian sardine. Ocean & Coastal Management, [s. l.], v. 165, p. 141–153, 2018a.

BRAGA, H. O.; PEREIRA, M. J.; MORGADO, F.; SOARES, A. M. V. M.; AZEITEIRO, U. M. Ethnozoological knowledge of traditional fishing villages about the anadromous sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Minho river, Portugal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, [s. l.], v. 15, n. 1, p. 71, 2019.

BROOK, R. K.; MCLACHLAN, S. M. Trends and prospects for local knowledge in ecological and conservation research and monitoring. Biodiversity and Conservation, [s. l.], v. 17, n. 14, p. 3501–3512, 2008.

CARBONEL, C. A. A. H. Modelling of upwelling–downwelling cycles caused by variable wind in a very sensitive coastal system. Continental Shelf Research, [s. l.], v. 23, n. 16, p. 1559–1578, 2003.

CARDOSO, P. O.; DOULA, S. M. Reservas extrativistas marinhas: perspectivas e limitações para jovens pescadores. Acta Biológica Catarinense, [s. l.], v. 5, n. 2, p. 5, 2018.

COSTA-NETO, E. M.; MARQUES, J. G. W. Conhecimento ictiológico tradicional ea distribuição temporal e espacial de recursos pesqueiros pelos pescadores de Conde, Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Etnoecológica, [s. l.], v. 4, n. 6, p. 56–68, 2000.

DAVIS, A.; WAGNER, J. R. Who Knows? On the Importance of Identifying “Experts” When Researching Local Ecological Knowledge. Human Ecology, [s. l.], v. 31, n. 3, p. 463–489, 2003.

DEEPANANDA, K. H. M. A.; AMARASINGHE, U. S.; JAYASINGHE-MUDALIGE, U. K.; BERKES, F. Stilt Fisher knowledge in southern Sri Lanka as an expert system: a strategy towards co-management. Fisheries Research, [s. l.], v. 174, p. 288–297, 2016.

DIEGUES, A. C. Etnoconservação: novos rumos para a proteção da natureza nos trópicos. second ed ed. São Paulo: Nupaub LTDA, 2000.

DOCA PESCA, S. A. Docapesca - Portos e Lotas, S.A. Departamento de Segurança Alimnetar e Certificação. Conselho de Administração. Mod. FT_SA_G_115_00. 2018. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 28 ago. 2020.

DREW, J. A. Use of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Marine Conservation. Conservation Biology, [s. l.], v. 19, n. 4, p. 1286–1293, 2005.

ESPINOZA-TENORIO, A.; WOLFF, M.; ESPEJEL, I.; MONTAÑO-MOCTEZUMA, G. Using Traditional Ecological Knowledge to Improve Holistic Fisheries Management: Transdisciplinary Modeling of a Lagoon Ecosystem of Southern Mexico. Ecology and Society, [s. l.], v. 18, n. 2, p. art6, 2013.

FAO. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018‐Meeting the sustainable development goals." Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO., 2018. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 27 maio. 2020.

FERNANDES, M. da L.; ANTUNES, I. C.; OLIVEIRA, E. R.; ALVES, F. L. Design Policy Options supported by Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services Assessment and Valuation: a Case Study in Portugal. Journal of Coastal Research, [s. l.], v. 75, n. sp1, p. 977–981, 2016.

FISCHER, J.; JORGENSEN, J.; JOSUPEIT, H.; KALIKOSKI, D. C.; FAO (EDS.). Fishers´ knowledge and the ecosystem approach to fisheries: applications, experiences and lessons in Latin America. Rome.

FROESE, R.; PAULY, D. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication., (12/2019). 2019. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 31 mar. 2020.

FUJITANI, M.; MCFALL, A.; RANDLER, C.; ARLINGHAUS, R. Participatory adaptive management leads to environmental learning outcomes extending beyond the sphere of science. Science Advances, [s. l.], v. 3, n. 6, p. e1602516, 2017.

GIGLIO, V. J.; BENDER, M. G.; ZAPELINI, C.; FERREIRA, C. E. L. The end of the line? Rapid depletion of a large-sized grouper through spearfishing in a subtropical marginal reef. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation, [s. l.], v. 15, p. 115–118, 2017.

HAIMOVICI, M.; PERES, M. B. em Rossi, C.L.W. Cergole M.C. Ávila-da Silva, A.O. Análise das Principais Pescarias Comerciais da Região Sudesde-Sul do Brasil: Dinâmica Populacional das Espécies em Exploração. In: Série Documentos Revizee-Score Sul. IOUSP. p. 124–131.

HALLWASS, G.; SCHIAVETTI, A.; SILVANO, R. A. M. Fishers’ knowledge indicates temporal changes in composition and abundance of fishing resources in Amazon protected areas. Animal Conservation, [s. l.], p. acv.12504, 2019.

HARRIS, M. History and Significance of the EMIC/ETIC Distinction. Annual Review of Anthropology, [s. l.], v. 5, n. 1, p. 329–350, 1976.

HICKS, C. C.; COHEN, P. J.; GRAHAM, N. A. J.; NASH, K. L.; ALLISON, E. H.; D’LIMA, C.; MILLS, D. J.; ROSCHER, M.; THILSTED, S. H.; THORNE-LYMAN, A. L.; MACNEIL, M. A. Harnessing global fisheries to tackle micronutrient deficiencies. Nature, [s. l.], v. 574, n. 7776, p. 95–98, 2019.

HOYT, E. The role of marine protected areas and sanctuaries. Sharks: conservation, governance and management, [s. l.], p. 236–261, 2014.

ICMBIO. Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade - ICMBio. Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de Extinção (Executive Summary - Brazil Red Book of Threatened Species of Fauna). 1. ed. Brasília - DF: ICMBio/MMA, 2018. v. 1 Disponível em: . Acesso em: 29 ago. 2018.

ICMBIO. Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade. DECRETO DE 3 DE JANEIRO DE 1997. Dispõe sobre a criação da Reserva Extrativista Marinha do Arraial do Cabo, no Município de Arraial do Cabo, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, e dá outras providências. 2019. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 21 mar. 2018.

INE, I. Estatísticas da Pesca 2013. Edição 2014. Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE) e Direção-Geral de Recursos Naturais, Segurança e Serviços Marítimos (DGRM)., Instituto Nacional de Estatística, I.P., 2014. Disponível em:

INE, I. Estatísticas da Pesca 2017. Edição 2018. Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE) e Direção-Geral de Recursos Naturais, Segurança e Serviços Marítimos (DGRM). Portugal: Instituto Nacional de Estatística, I.P., 2018. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 20 abr. 2020.

ITIS. ITIS. The Integrated Taxonomic Information System on-line database. 2018. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 22 mar. 2018.

IUCN. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1. Downloaded on 05 May 2019. 2019. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 8 jan. 2019.

JOHANNES, R. E.; FREEMAN, M. M. R.; HAMILTON, R. J. Ignore fishers’ knowledge and miss the boat. Fish and Fisheries, [s. l.], v. 1, n. 3, p. 257–271, 2008.

LIU, T.-M.; CHANG, S.-K. Changes in local knowledge and its impacts on ecological resources management: The case of flyingfish culture of the Tao in Taiwan. Marine Policy, [s. l.], v. 103, p. 74–83, 2019.

LOPES, P. F. M.; VERBA, J. T.; BEGOSSI, A.; PENNINO, M. G. Predicting species distribution from fishers’ local ecological knowledge: a new alternative for data-poor management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, [s. l.], p. 1–9, 2018.

MARQUES, J. G. W. Pescando pescadores: Ciência e Etnociência em uma Perspectiva Ecológica. São Paulo: USP/NUPAUB, [s. l.], p. 258p, 2001.

MARTINS, L. M. Antunes. “By-catch de espadarte (Xiphias gladius) e tintureira (Prionace glauca) juvenil no palangre de superfície”. 2013. Dissertação de Mestrado em Estudos Integrados dos Oceanos - Universidade dos Açores, Portugal, 2013. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 9 maio. 2019.

MEDEIROS, M. C.; BARBOZA, R. R. D.; MARTEL, G.; MOURÃO, J. da S. Combining local fishers’ and scientific ecological knowledge: Implications for comanagement. Ocean & Coastal Management, [s. l.], v. 158, p. 1–10, 2018.

MUSIELLO-FERNANDES, J.; ZAPPES, C. A.; HOSTIM-SILVA, M. Small-scale shrimp fisheries on the Brazilian coast: Stakeholders perceptions of the closed season and integrated management. Ocean & Coastal Management, [s. l.], v. 148, n. Supplement C, p. 89–96, 2017.

MUSIELLO-FERNANDES, J.; ZAPPES, C. A.; HOSTIM-SILVA, M. Small-scale fisheries of the Atlantic seabob shrimp (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri): Continuity of commercialization and maintenance of the local culture through making public policies on the Brazilian coast. Ocean & Coastal Management, [s. l.], v. 155, p. 76–82, 2018.

NYKÄNEN, M.; JESSOPP, M.; DOYLE, T. K.; HARMAN, L. A.; CAÑADAS, A.; BREEN, P.; HUNT, W.; MACKEY, M.; CADHLA, O. Ó.; REID, D.; ROGAN, E. Using tagging data and aerial surveys to incorporate availability bias in the abundance estimation of blue sharks (Prionace glauca). PLOS ONE, [s. l.], v. 13, n. 9, p. e0203122, 2018.

OLIVEIRA JÚNIOR, J. G. C.; SILVA, L. P. S.; MALHADO, A. C. M.; BATISTA, V. S.; FABRÉ, N. N.; LADLE, R. J. Artisanal Fisheries Research: A Need for Globalization? PLOS ONE, [s. l.], v. 11, n. 3, p. e0150689, 2016.

OLSSON, P.; FOLKE, C. Local ecological knowledge and institutional dynamics for ecosystem management: a study of Lake Racken watershed, Sweden. Ecosystems, [s. l.], v. 4, n. 2, p. 85–104, 2001.

PAULY, D.; HILBORN, R.; BRANCH, T. A. Fisheries: Does catch reflect abundance? Nature, [s. l.], v. 494, n. 7437, p. 303–306, 2013.

PAULY, D.; ZELLER, D. Catch reconstructions reveal that global marine fisheries catches are higher than reported and declining. Nature Communications, [s. l.], v. 7, p. 10244, 2016.

PEÑAHERRERA-PALMA, C.; VAN PUTTEN, I.; KARPIEVITCH, Y. V.; FRUSHER, S.; LLERENA-MARTILLO, Y.; HEARN, A. R.; SEMMENS, J. M. Evaluating abundance trends of iconic species using local ecological knowledge. Biological Conservation, [s. l.], v. 225, p. 197–207, 2018.

POISSON, F.; ARNAUD-HAOND, S.; DEMARCQ, H.; MÉTRAL, L.; BRISSET, B.; CORNELLA, D.; WENDLING, B. French Bluefin Tuna Longline Fishery Bycatch Programme. In: KOMATSU, T.; CECCALDI, H.-J.; YOSHIDA, J.; PROUZET, P.; HENOCQUE, Y. (Eds.). Oceanography Challenges to Future Earth. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019. p. 401–405.

POMEROY, R.; ARANGO, C.; LOMBOY, C. G.; BOX, S. Financial inclusion to build economic resilience in small-scale fisheries. Marine Policy, [s. l.], v. 118, p. 103982, 2020.

POMEROY, R.; PARKS, J.; POLLNAC, R.; CAMPSON, T.; GENIO, E.; MARLESSY, C.; HOLLE, E.; PIDO, M.; NISSAPA, A.; BOROMTHANARAT, S.; THU HUE, N. Fish wars: Conflict and collaboration in fisheries management in Southeast Asia. Marine Policy, [s. l.], v. 31, n. 6, p. 645–656, 2007.

POSEY, D. Introdução – Etnobiologia: teoria e prática. In: In: RIBEIRO, B. (Ed.) Suma Etnológica Brasileira. Etnobiologia. Petrópolis: Vozes/Finep, 1987. v. 1p. 15–25.

PURCELL, S. W.; FRASER, N. J.; TAGICA, S.; LALAVANUA, W.; CECCARELLI, D. M. Discriminating Catch Composition and Fishing Modes in an Artisanal Multispecies Fishery. Frontiers in Marine Science, [s. l.], v. 5, p. 243, 2018.

ROTUNDO, M. M.; SEVERINO-RODRIGUES, E.; BARRELLA, W.; PETRERE JUNIOR, M.; RAMIRES, M. Checklist of marine demersal fishes captured by the pair trawl fisheries in Southern (RJ-SC) Brazil. Biota Neotropica, [s. l.], v. 19, n. 1, 2019. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 19 jun. 2019.

ROUSSEAU, Y.; WATSON, R. A.; BLANCHARD, J. L.; FULTON, E. A. Defining global artisanal fisheries. Marine Policy, [s. l.], v. 108, p. 103634, 2019.

SANTOS, M. P. N.; SEIXAS, S.; AGGIO, R. B. M.; HANAZAKI, N.; COSTA, M.; SCHIAVETTI, A.; DIAS, J. A.; AZEITEIRO, U. M. Fisheries as a Human Activity: Artisanal Fisheries and Sustainability. Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada, [s. l.], v. 12, n. 4, p. 405–427, 2012.

SHIFFMAN, D. S.; HAMMERSCHLAG, N. Shark conservation and management policy: a review and primer for non-specialists. Animal Conservation, [s. l.], v. 19, n. 5, p. 401–412, 2016.

SILVA, P.; CABRAL, H.; RANGEL, M.; PEREIRA, J.; PITA, C. Ready for co-management? Portuguese artisanal octopus fishers’ preferences for management and knowledge about the resource. Marine Policy, [s. l.], 2018. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 7 jan. 2019.

SILVANO, R. A. M.; BEGOSSI, A. From Ethnobiology to Ecotoxicology: Fishers’ Knowledge on Trophic Levels as Indicator of Bioaccumulation in Tropical Marine and Freshwater Fishes. Ecosystems, [s. l.], v. 19, n. 7, p. 1310–1324, 2016.

TAGLIAFICO, A.; RAGO, N.; RANGEL, S.; BROADHURST, M. K. Aspects of the reproductive biology of the data-deficient Mustelus minicanis and M. norrisi (Chondrichthyes: Triakidae) in the southern Caribbean Sea. Environmental Biology of Fishes, [s. l.], v. 100, n. 7, p. 785–795, 2017.

TEAM, R. C. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R version 4.0.2 (Sincere Pumpkin Patch). [s. l.], 2020. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 28 ago. 2020.

THOMÉ, M. T. C.; HADDAD, C. F. B. Brazil’s biodiversity researchers need help. Science, [s. l.], v. 364, n. 6446, p. 1144.2-1145, 2019.

TRIMBLE, M.; JOHNSON, D. Artisanal fishing as an undesirable way of life? The implications for governance of fishers’ wellbeing aspirations in coastal Uruguay and southeastern Brazil. Marine Policy, Social and cultural impacts of marine fisheries. [s. l.], v. 37, Social and cultural impacts of marine fisheries, p. 37–44, 2013.

VANDEPERRE, F.; AIRES-DA-SILVA, A.; SANTOS, M.; FERREIRA, R.; BOLTEN, A. B.; SERRAO SANTOS, R.; AFONSO, P. Demography and ecology of blue shark (Prionace glauca) in the central North Atlantic. Fisheries Research, [s. l.], v. 153, p. 89–102, 2014.

VERÍSSIMO, A.; SAMPAIO, Í.; MCDOWELL, J. R.; ALEXANDRINO, P.; MUCIENTES, G.; QUEIROZ, N.; SILVA, C. Da; JONES, C. S.; NOBLE, L. R. World without borders—genetic population structure of a highly migratory marine predator, the blue shark (Prionace glauca). Ecology and Evolution, [s. l.], v. 7, n. 13, p. 4768–4781, 2017.

WEKKE, I. S.; CAHAYA, A. Fishermen Poverty and Survival Strategy: Research on Poor Households in Bone Indonesia. Procedia Economics and Finance, [s. l.], v. 26, p. 7–11, 2015.

ZAPPES, C. A.; SIMÕES-LOPES, P. C.; ANDRIOLO, A.; DI BENEDITTO, A. P. M. Traditional knowledge identifies causes of bycatch on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821): An ethnobiological approach. Ocean & Coastal Management, [s. l.], v. 120, p. 160–169, 2016.



  • Não há apontamentos.

Direitos autorais 2020 Ethnoscientia

ISSN 2448-1998